Cancer Research Charity - Definition and Types



Cancer Research Charity

- Cancer is an altered cellular mechanism with progressive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with selective ability to invade and metastasize and cause mechanical effects of pressure, obstruction, and interruption of blood supply.



Different Types of Cancer

Lung Cancer- squamous cell carcinoma (most common); dyspnea; wheezing; dry to productive cough; hemoptysis; hoarseness; chest pain; history of cigarette smoking and recurrent infection.

Colon/Rectal Cancer- Change in bowel habits; diarrhea or constipation; rectal bleeding; abdominal cramps and vague discomfort; signs of intestinal obstruction; palpable mass; history of low fiber diet.

Breast Cancer- Firm, nontender painless lump or mass; nipple retraction or discharge; palpable mass + mammography; in women >50 with (+) history and early menarche and late menopause.

Uterine Cancer- Post-menopausal uterine bleeding; intermenstrual bleeding; common among obese; nulliparous; prolonged estrogen therapy; post-menopause (+) papsmear.

Prostate Cancer- Difficulty in starting urine, smaller and less forceful urine flow; urgency; hesitancy; dribbling and retention (increase residual urine volume), frequency common in age 50 with (+) history.

Bladder Cancer- Initially painless hematuria; flank or pelvic pain; dysuria; frequency and urgency common in men, cigarette smokers and excessive coffee drinkers.

Laryngeal Cancer- Persistent hoarseness; cough and hemoptysis; enlarged cervical lymph nodes; dysphagia and dyspnea; common among voice abusers; smokers and alcoholics.



Cancer Research Charity - Characteristics of Benign Neoplasm

1. grows slowly
2. grows by enlarging and expanding
3. almost always contained within a fibrous
4. usually well differentiated
5. recurrence extremely unusual when surgically removed
6. metastasis never occur
7. not harmful to host unless located in area where it causes compression of tissues or obstruction of vital organs
8. very good prognosis; tumor generally removed surgically


Cancer Research Charity - Characteristics of Malignant Neoplasm

1. usually grows rapidly
2. grows by infiltrating surrounding tissues
3. never contained within a capsule
4. usually poorly differentiated
5. recurrence common following surgery because tumor cells spread into surrounding tissues
6. metastasis very common
7. always harmful to host; result in death unless removed surgically or destroyed by or chemotherapy
8. prognosis depends on cell type and speed of diagnosis


Breast Self – Examination (BSE)- best performed one week after onset of mense. For non-menstruating women, during the first day of every month.

Inspection- Examine the breasts in front of a mirror, looking for noticeable differences in contour, nipple placement, or dimpling
- Re-examine with hands on hips, arms raised over the head, and leaning forward

Palpation in Bath or Shower- using the hand opposite the breast, palpate the entire breast with the flat pads of the first three fingers, using circular motion.
- repeat with the other breasts

Palpation Lying Down

- raise one arm and tuck it behind
- using the same technique as in bath or shower, palpate the breast with the fingers of the opposite hand
- repeat with the other breast


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