Cardiovascular Nursing Questions (NLE 1-5)

Cardiovascular Nursing Practice Test

1. The nurse should be prepared to manage complications after abdominal aortic aneurysm resection. Which of the following complications is most common postoperatively?

a. Renal failure
b. Hemorrhage and shock
c. Graft occlusion
d. Enteric fistula

2. A client reports recent onset of chest pain that occurs sporadically with exertion. The client also has fatigue and mild ankle swelling, which is most pronounced at the end of the day. The nurse suspects a cardiovascular disorder. When exploring the chief complaint, the nurse should find out if the client has any other common cardiovascular symptoms, such as:

a. shortness of breath.
b. insomnia.
c. irritability.
d. lower substernal abdominal pain.

3. Cardiovascular nursing questions about a nurse who records a client's history and discovers several risk factors for coronary artery disease. Which cardiac risk factors are considered controllable?

a. Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and heredity
b. Diabetes, age, and gender
c. Age, gender, and heredity
d. Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension

4. A client with a history of myocardial infarction is admitted with shortness of breath, anxiety, and slight confusion. Assessment findings include a regular heart rate of 120 beats/minute, audible third and fourth heart sounds, blood pressure of 84/64 mm Hg, bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, and a urine output of 5 ml over the past hour. The nurse anticipates preparing the client for transfer to the intensive care unit and pulmonary artery catheter insertion because:

a. the client is experiencing heart failure.
b. the client is going into cardiogenic shock.
c. the client shows signs of aneurysm rupture.
d. the client is in the early stage of right-sided heart failure.

5. The nurse administers furosemide (Lasix) to treat a client with heart failure. Which adverse effect must the nurse watch for most carefully?

a. Increase in blood pressure
b. Increase in blood volume
c. Low serum potassium level
d. High serum sodium level

Cardiovascular Nursing Questions
Answers and Rationale

1) B
- Hemorrhage and shock are the most common complications after abdominal aortic aneurysm resection. Renal failure can occur as a result of shock or from injury to the renal arteries during surgery. Graft occlusion and enteric fistula formation are rare complications of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

2) A
- Common signs and symptoms of cardiovascular dysfunction include shortness of breath, chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, fainting, fatigue, and peripheral edema. Insomnia seldom indicates a cardiovascular problem. Although irritability may occur if cardiovascular dysfunction leads to cerebral oxygen deprivation, this symptom more commonly reflects a respiratory or neurologic dysfunction. Lower substernal abdominal pain occurs with some GI disorders.

3) D
- Answer to this cardiovascular nursing questions - Controllable risk factors include hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, diabetes, stress, alcohol abuse, and use of contraceptives. Uncontrollable risk factors for coronary artery disease include gender, age, and heredity.

4) B
- This client's findings indicate cardiogenic shock, which occurs when the heart fails to pump properly, impeding blood supply and oxygen flow to vital organs. Cardiogenic shock also may cause cold, clammy skin and generalized weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain as lactic acid accumulates from poor blood flow, preventing waste removal. Left-sided and right-sided heart failure eventually cause venous congestion with jugular vein distention and edema as the heart fails to pump blood forward. A ruptured aneurysm causes severe hypotension and a quickly deteriorating clinical status from blood loss and circulatory collapse; this client has low but not severely decreased blood pressure. Also, in ruptured aneurysm, deterioration is more rapid and full cardiac arrest is common.

5) C
- Furosemide is a potassium-wasting diuretic. The nurse must monitor the serum potassium level and assess for signs of low potassium. As water and sodium are lost in the urine, blood pressure decreases, blood volume decreases, and urine output increases.

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