Endocrine System Practice Tests (NLE 1-5)

Endocrine System Practice Tests

1. The nurse is planning care for a 52-year-old male client in acute addisonian crisis. Which nursing diagnosis should receive the highest priority?

a. Risk for infection
b. Decreased cardiac output
c. Impaired physical mobility
d. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements

2. When caring for a client who's being treated for hyperthyroidism, it's important to:

a. provide extra blankets and clothing to keep the client warm.
b. monitor the client for signs of restlessness, sweating, and excessive weight loss during thyroid replacement therapy.
c. balance the client's periods of activity and rest.
d. encourage the client to be active to prevent constipation.

3. Endocrine System Practice Tests - During a class on exercise for diabetic clients, a client asks the nurse educator how often to exercise. The nurse educator advises the clients to exercise how often to meet the goals of planned exercise?

a. At least once a week
b. At least three times a week
c. At least five times a week
d. Every day

4. The nurse is providing dietary instructions to a client with hypoglycemia. To control hypoglycemic episodes, the nurse should recommend:

a. increasing saturated fat intake and fasting in the afternoon.
b. increasing intake of vitamins B and D and taking iron supplements.
c. eating a candy bar if light-headedness occurs.
d. consuming a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet and avoiding fasting.

5. A client with a history of hypertension is diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism. This diagnosis indicates that the client's hypertension is caused by excessive hormone secretion from which of the following glands?

a. Adrenal cortex
b. Pancreas
c. Adrenal medulla
d. Parathyroid

Endocrine System Practice Tests
Answers and Rationale

1) B
- An acute addisonian crisis is a life-threatening event, caused by deficiencies of cortisol and aldosterone. Glucocorticoid insufficiency causes a decrease in cardiac output and vascular tone, leading to hypovolemia. The client becomes tachycardic and hypotensive and may develop shock and circulatory collapse. The client with Addison's disease is at risk for infection; however, reducing infection isn't a priority during an addisonian crisis. Impaired physical mobility is also an appropriate nursing diagnosis for the client with Addison's disease, but it isn't a priority in a crisis. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements is also an important nursing diagnosis for the client with Addison's disease but not a priority during a crisis.

2) C
- A client with hyperthyroidism needs to be encouraged to balance periods of activity and rest. Many clients with hyperthyroidism are hyperactive and complain of feeling very warm. Consequently, it's important to keep the environment cool and to teach the client how to manage his physical reactions to heat. Clients with hypothyroidism — not hyperthyroidism — complain of being cold and need warm clothing and blankets to maintain a comfortable temperature. They also receive thyroid replacement therapy, often feel lethargic and sluggish, and are prone to constipation. The nurse should encourage clients with hypothyroidism to be more active to prevent constipation.

3) B
- Endocrine System Practice Tests Answer - Diabetic clients must exercise at least three times a week to meet the goals of planned exercise — lowering the blood glucose level, reducing or maintaining the proper weight, increasing the serum high-density lipoprotein level, decreasing serum triglyceride levels, reducing blood pressure, and minimizing stress. Exercising once a week wouldn't achieve these goals. Exercising more than three times a week, although beneficial, would exceed the minimum requirement.

4) D
- To control hypoglycemic episodes, the nurse should instruct the client to consume a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, avoid fasting, and avoid simple sugars. Increasing saturated fat intake and increasing vitamin supplementation wouldn't help control hypoglycemia.

5) A
- Excessive secretion of aldosterone in the adrenal cortex is responsible for the client's hypertension. This hormone acts on the renal tubule, where it promotes reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. The pancreas mainly secretes hormones involved in fuel metabolism. The adrenal medulla secretes the catecholamines — epinephrine and norepinephrine. The parathyroids secrete parathyroid hormone.

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