Nursing Fundamentals Questions
(NLE/PRC 1-5)

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1. A facility has a system for transcribing medication orders to a Kardex as well as a computerized medication administration record (MAR). A physician writes the following order for a client: "Prednisone 5 mg P.O. daily for 3 days." The order is correctly transcribed on the Kardex. However, the nurse who transcribes the order onto the MAR neglects to place the limitation of 3 days on the prescription. On the 4th day after the order was instituted, a nurse administers prednisone 5 mg P.O. During an audit of the chart, the error is identified. The person most responsible for the error is the:

a. nurse who transcribed the order incorrectly on the MAR
b. nurse who administered the erroneous dose.
c. pharmacist who filled the order and provided the erroneous dose.
d. facility because of its policy on transcription of medications.

2. To evaluate a client's chief complaint, the nurse performs deep palpation. The purpose of deep palpation is to assess which of the following?

a. Skin turgor
b. Hydration
c. Organs
d. Temperature

3. One of the nursing fundamentals questions is about giving an I.M. injection, the nurse should insert the needle into the muscle at an angle of:

a. 15 degrees.
b. 30 degrees.
c. 45 degrees.
d. 90 degrees.

4. A client, age 43, has no family history of breast cancer or other risk factors for this disease. The nurse should instruct her to have a mammogram how often

a. Once, to establish a baseline
b. Once per year
c. Every 2 years
d. Twice per year

5. When prioritizing a client's plan of care based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the nurse's first priority would be:

a. allowing the family to see a newly admitted client.
b. ambulating the client in the hallway.
c. administering pain medication
d. placing wrist restraints on the client.

Nursing Fundamentals Questions
Answers and Rationale

1) B
- The nurse administering the dose should have compared the MAR with the Kardex and noted the discrepancy. The transcribing nurse and pharmacist aren't void of responsibility; however, the nurse administering the dose is most responsible. The facility's policy does provide for a system of checks and balances. Therefore, the facility isn't responsible for the error.

2) C
- The purpose of deep palpation, in which the nurse indents the client's skin approximately 1½" (3.8 cm), is to assess underlying organs and structures, such as the kidneys and spleen. Skin turgor, hydration, and temperature can be assessed by using light touch or light palpation

3) D
Nursing Fundamentals Questions Rationale: When giving an I.M. injection, the nurse inserts the needle into the muscle at a 90-degree angle, using a quick, dartlike motion. A 15-degree angle is appropriate when administering an intradermal injection. A 30-degree angle isn't used for any type of injection. A 45- or 90-degree angle can be used when giving a subcutaneous injection

4) C
- A client age 40 to 49 with no family history of breast cancer or other risk factors for this disease should have a mammogram every 2 years. After age 50, the client should have a mammogram every year

5) C
- In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, pain relief is on the first layer. Activity (option B) is on the second layer. Safety (option D) is on the third layer. Love and belonging (option A) are on the fourth layer.

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