Blood Transfusion Reaction





The Following Blood Transfusion Reaction are:

Allergic Reaction

- this type of complication of blood transfusion is caused by sensitivity to plasma protein of donor antibody, which reacts with recipient antigen

Assessment:

• Flushing
• Rush, hives
• Pruritus
• Laryngeal edema, difficulty of breathing


Febrile, Non-Hemolytic

- this type of complication of blood transfusion is caused by hypersensitivity to donor white cells, platelets or plasma proteins. This is the most symptomatic complication of blood transfusion

Assessment:

• Sudden chills and fever
• Flushing
• Headache
• Anxiety


Hemolytic Reaction

- this type of complication of blood transfusion is caused by infusion of incompatible blood products

Assessment:

• Low back pain (first sign). This is due to inflammatory response of the kidneys to incompatible blood
• Chills
• Feeling of fullness
• Tachycardia
• Flushing
• Tachypnea
• Hypotension
• Bleeding
• Vascular collapse
• Acute renal failure



Nursing Interventions for Blood Transfusion Reaction

1. The first thing to do when complications in blood transfusion occurs is to STOP TRANSFUSION

2. Then start or open I.V. line (0.9%NaCl)

3. Place the client in fowler's position and administer oxygen therapy depending in the hospital protocol

4. Check vital signs as often as 5 mins

5. Notify the doctor immediately about the complications of blood transfusion

6. Carry out doctors order; prepare the emergency drugs like antihistamines, vasopressor, fluids as protocol

7. Obtain urine specimen and send to the laboratory to determine presence of hemoglobin as a result of RBC hemolysis

8. Blood container, tubing, attached label, and transfusion record are saved and returned to the laboratory for analysis.

These things should be carried out by the nurse step by step when complications occurs in blood transfusion.


Source: Blood Transfusion Complication

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