Warning Signs of Cancer - Are You Aware?


C - change in bowel or bladder habits
A - a sore that does not heal
U - unusual bleeding or discharge
T - thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
I - indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
O - obvious change in wart or mole
N - nagging cough or hoarseness

U - unexplained anemia
S - sudden unexplained weight loss


The method used in the diagnosis and staging of cancer are determined largely by the location and type of cancer.

The Pap smear

Papsmear is an example of the type of test called efoliative cytology. The purpose is to detect the presence of abnormal cells.


Tissue biopsy is the removal of a tissue specimen for microscopic study, e.g. getting sample tissue from the breast to determine or get breast cancer information.

Biopsies are obtained in a number of ways, including needle aspiration. In some instances, a surgical incision is made from which biopsy specimens are obtained. Excisional biopsies are those in which the entire tumor is removed.

Tumor Markers

It is an antigens that are expressed on the surface of the tumor cells or substances released from normal cells in response to the presence of tumor. It is used for screening, diagnosis, establishing prognosis, monitoring treatment (breast cancer treatment for example), and detecting recurrent disease.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

To identify specific circulating tumor cells and micromethastases in leukemias, lymphomas, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and variety of carcinomas. Tendency for false-positive results to occur if certain precautions are not taken to prevent contamination of the samples.

Cancer Diagnosis is important for all high risk client especially when they are experiencing the early warning signs of cancer so that oncologist can execute effective treatment that are suitable for the patient.

Staging and Grading Tumors

The two basic methods for classifying cancers are grading according to the histologic or cellular characteristics of the tumor and staging according to the clinical spread of the disease.

1. Grading - To determine the level of differentiation and the number of mitosis. Cancer are classified are grades I, II, III and IV with increasing anaplasia or lack of differentiation.

2. Staging - determine the progress and spread of the disease. Surgery may be used to determine tumor size and lymph node involvement.

TNM Classification System

T (tumor)

Tx - tumor cancer cannot be adequately assessed
T0 - no evidence of primary tumor
Tis - carcinoma in situ
T1-4 - progressive increase in tumor size or involvement

N (nodes)

Nx - regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
N0 - no evidence of regional node metastasis
N1-3 - increasing involvement of regional lymph nodes

M (metastasis)

Mx - not assessed
M0 - no distant metastasis
M1 - distant metastasis present, specify sites

To gather more information about cancer, visit this page: Warning Signs of Cancer Homepage

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